Category Archives: genome

Research Methods and Main Progress in Recent Years of Comparative genomics

There are two research methods for Comparative genomics, namely comparative mapping and comparative bioinformatics. Comparative mapping is to do physical or genetic mapping of related species with the common genetic markers (molecular marker, gene cDNA cloning and genomic clones), comparing the different species distribution of those markers in the genome, suggesting synteny and collinearity on chromosome or chromosome segment, in order to analyze accurately genome structure and genome evolution of different species. Genome comparative mapping study prompts the genome homology and difference of the same species, which has great inspiration in the study of the origin and evolution in different species. Thus, comparative mapping has become an important part of plant genomics research in recent years.

There are two main methods for plant comparative physical mapping. One is the analysis of the homology sequence by analyzing the similarity to study the molecular phylogenetic process and interpretation sequence in different species; the other one is the comparison in situ hybridization localization, which is due to the true position, fragments of syntenic blocks on the chromosomes of different species. So the comparison in situ hybridization physical mapping has become an increasingly important research field of comparative mapping in plants.

The research significance of comparative mapping:

According to the highly conservative characteristics of different kinds of genome genes and their arrangements, you can study and explore their evolutionary clues.

The interpretation of the genome sequence. That is, through the comparison of homology to speculate the function of unknown genes.

Promote gene mapping. Due to similarity in different biological homologous genes, genome genetic information can be obtained by smaller studies related genomes, and the small genome of plant species is conducive to the straight homologous gene(ortholongus gene) for cloning.

Concept of proteome

Proteome refers to all protein components expressed by a gene, a cell or tissue expressed. Proteomics is the study of specific protein groups in different time and space, so as to reveal and explain the basic rules of life activities.

Why Is So Different in Analysis Results Provided by the Gene Sequencing Companies?

Kira Peikoff, 28 year old expressed concern about her future health because of family disease. She hoped to find some tips and suggestions from gene sequencing. But she found that three different gene sequencing companies gave different analysis results. Since the analysis results of different companies are different, what is the significance of such sequencing?Sequencing Companies

In the human body and almost all the living body (except for some RNA viruses and prion), each cell has a complete set of genomic DNA, such as a complete blueprint + construction manual. From the beginning of the fertilized egg, the body will choose different chapters from this manual to set up different functions of the cells, and let them perform the corresponding functions. Each one of these manuals is slightly different (most of them are the aforementioned SNP). These differences define race, skin, hair, eye color and other traits, but also defines the sensitivity of the disease. Three companies have represented the genetic health consulting industry, trying to find some SNPs associated disease, to detect their state, then calculate a probability, and finally hand over in the detected hand.

What kind of SNP locus is really associated with disease? How much relationship does it have ?

The former problem basically relies on large-scale association analysis. In fact, it is a statistical concept.

Actually only a few single gene diseases (such as a type of congenital deafness) have resolute and decisive conclusions. Height, weight, hypertension, diabetes and cancer are caused by hundreds of intertwined genes, coupled with the impact of the environment factor accumulation, coupled with the time, and show the differences. So now in the human genetics, in fact, everyone is trying to increase the statistics of the population, find race and background conditions consistent with the crowd, improve the effectiveness of their study of statistics and probability as far as possible. Even so, the conclusions between different groups of researchers are different. Because they are less likely to be shared by a group of people who are selected, the conclusion is seldom that to be repeatedly verified by other groups.

The Next Step of Human genome project

The scientific community has completed the human genome map and medical genetic map. It is currently launching Cancer Genome Project.

5 years ago, when the first to genes, the public have been curious to ask: “what is the gene?” “What is the human genome project for what?” With the completion of human genome project sequencing work, “Where will human genome research go?” “When will the human genome project really benefit human health?” become hot topics of public concern.

Completing the human genome map and medical genetic map

Now the human genome project has finished a specific white genome map which can not represent the genome of yellow, black and other races. Before October last year, the human genome project completed a medical genetic map. The genetic map tried to choose more than 380 people with white, yellow, Mongoloid and Negroid races in the world, comparing their structure differences in the process of human evolution. Scientists hoped that they can be inspired by comparing the differences in the structure of the human race on the way of life and the clinical drug use.

Launching the cancer genome project

The international human genome project revealed the cancer genome project united by Britain and the United States has started 2 months ago in the United States. As the most direct and specific application of human genome project in medical practice, its goal is to apply the existing knowledge, tools and methods to the research of cancer genome, and to find out the variation of DNA in the DNA sequence level.

Cancer genome project in the United States is an innovative research program, with a total investment of $100,000,000. The current study focuses on brain cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer, which are three highest cancers in USA.

Although the cancer genome project has not yet formed like the human genome project, it has a clear plan that which countries will participate and what tasks each country will undertake. By 2020, personalized treatment will become possible.