There are two research methods for Comparative genomics, namely comparative mapping and comparative bioinformatics. Comparative mapping is to do physical or genetic mapping of related species with the common genetic markers (molecular marker, gene cDNA cloning and genomic clones), comparing the different species distribution of those markers in the genome, suggesting synteny and collinearity on chromosome or chromosome segment, in order to analyze accurately genome structure and genome evolution of different species. Genome comparative mapping study prompts the genome homology and difference of the same species, which has great inspiration in the study of the origin and evolution in different species. Thus, comparative mapping has become an important part of plant genomics research in recent years.
There are two main methods for plant comparative physical mapping. One is the analysis of the homology sequence by analyzing the similarity to study the molecular phylogenetic process and interpretation sequence in different species; the other one is the comparison in situ hybridization localization, which is due to the true position, fragments of syntenic blocks on the chromosomes of different species. So the comparison in situ hybridization physical mapping has become an increasingly important research field of comparative mapping in plants.
The research significance of comparative mapping:
According to the highly conservative characteristics of different kinds of genome genes and their arrangements, you can study and explore their evolutionary clues.
The interpretation of the genome sequence. That is, through the comparison of homology to speculate the function of unknown genes.
Promote gene mapping. Due to similarity in different biological homologous genes, genome genetic information can be obtained by smaller studies related genomes, and the small genome of plant species is conducive to the straight homologous gene(ortholongus gene) for cloning.
Concept of proteome
Proteome refers to all protein components expressed by a gene, a cell or tissue expressed. Proteomics is the study of specific protein groups in different time and space, so as to reveal and explain the basic rules of life activities.