Genomic sequencing–Next Generation Sequencing
The finish of Human Genome Project is a milestone for genome research. With ten-year development, the technology of genomic sequencing has changed a lot, which greatly improved the efficiency of sequencing. Last week researchers announced their result of UK10K project. Since it was proposed by David Cameron in 2014, this big project has analyzed the whole genome of nearly ten thousand people for only one year. Next generation sequencing plays an important role here.
Next generation sequencing, also called deep sequencing or high throughput sequencing, is a sequencing technology to meet the need of all kinds of research. The main characteristic of next generation sequencing is sequencing by synthesis. It has a higher throughput, and is more rapid but cost less than Sanger sequencing.
The coming of Genome Sequencer 20 System opened the gate of next generation sequencing. This is a high throughput genome sequencing system based on pyrosequencing technology which was introduced by 454 company. Through the purchase, Roche owned this technology and upgraded it. This is the 454 GS FLX sequencer.
(Roche 454 GS FLX sequencer)
The biggest advantage of Roche 454 is its reads. It can remain a high accuracy over 400bp reads. That’s the reason that it can be widely used in de novo sequencing, genome analysis and transcriptome analysis.
In 2006, Solexa company also launched its own NGS system, Genome Analyzer. For its advantage of cost, compatibility and operability, Solexa has become the most widely used technology in sequencing. From GA to Illumina Hiseq 2000/2500, the Solexa technology also changed a lot. Now it only takes ten days for the completion of three human whole genome sequences. The application of Solexa contains de novo sequencing, re-sequencing, small RNA sequencing, lncRNA sequencing, transcriptomics sequencing and etc.
(Illumina Hiseq 2000)
As one of the magnates in sequencing industry, ABI is the monopolistic company in Sanger sequencing. However, ABI did not grab the chance of NGS. Until 2007, ABI purchased a research company, Agencourt, and launched its SOLID sequencing platform. The whole name is Sequencing by Oligo Ligation Detection. Compared to Roche 454 and Solexa, SOLID has the highest accuracy and flexibility. It can be used to the whole genome mapping analysis, and more RNA research.